Monday, May 25, 2020

5 Ways to Use Rest and Reflection to Make Learning Stick

Memory is sticky. Rest is good for learning. These are two of the most recent findings about learning from the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (October 2014) by Margaret Schlichting, a graduate student researcher, and Alison Preston, an associate professor of psychology and neuroscience. The study Memory Reactivation during Rest Supports Upcoming Learning of Related Content describes how the researchers gave participants given two learning tasks that required them to memorize different series of associated photo pairs. Between the tasks, participants could rest for several minutes and could think about anything they chose. Brain scans on participants who used that time to reflect on what they had learned earlier in the day did better on tests later. These participants also performed better with additional   information, even if the overlap pertaining to what they learned later was small. Weve shown for the first time that how the brain processes information during rest can improve future learning, said Preston, explaining that letting the brain wander to previous experiences helped solidify new learning. So how might educators use the information from this study? Educators who provide students the time to develop a secure grasp of content through rest and reflection give student brains an opportunity to increase synaptic transmission along the neural pathways that are tasked with a particular form of learning. Rest and reflection makes those transmissions connect to other background knowledge, and those connections become stronger, which means learning is more likely to stick.   For teachers wanting to take advantage of these findings in how brains work,   there are several different strategies to try that allow for reflections when new content is introduced: 1.Think-jot-pair-share: Give students several minutes to think about new learning beginning with the simplest question, â€Å"What do I already know about this new content and how can that help me better understand?† This is the â€Å"rest† period, so give students time to think first without writing.Give students time to reflect and jot down their responses   (doodle, map, outline, notes). This is the reflection period.Have students pair or group and share their responses with each other.Have each pair or group share out what they already know and how this knowledge might help them. 2. Reflective journaling: Reflective journaling is a practice where students are provided time to think deeply and write about a learning experience. This involves the student writing about: What happened (positive and negative);Why it happened, what it means, how successful it was;What the student (personally) learned from the experience. 3. Mindmapping: Give students time to think (rest period) as they use the powerful cognitive strategy that combines graphics and   spatial awareness have students start in the center of a piece of paper and use a central image that is connected to new learningHave students branch out in lines and add additional images that are related to the central imageMake the lines curved and encourage the use of color to make the mind map Limit the number of words to one per line 4. Exit Slip This strategy requires students reflect on what they have learned and express what or how they are thinking about the new information by answering a   prompt given by the teacher. Providing time for students to think first,this strategy is an easy way to incorporate writing into many different content areas.    Examples of exit slip prompts: The most important thing I learned today was†¦Summarizing what I learned in 20 words:I need help with†¦I would like to learn about†¦My   understanding of today’s topic from 1-10 is a ___ because,..... 5. The 3,2,1,bridge This routine can be introduced by having students do an initial 3, 2, 1 set of reflections individually on paper.    Before new content is introduced, students are asked to  write down 3 thoughts, 2 questions, and 1 compare or contrast statement on a topic that will be taught;After the topic is introduced, students complete another 3,2,1 3 thoughts, 2 questions, and 1 compare/contrast statement or analogy;  Students then share both their initial and new thinking and draw a bridge between the before new learning and after new learning. The share the bridge with other students. Whatever strategy is selected, educators that provide time for rest and reflection when new content is introduced are educators that allow students to use their prior knowledge or memories to make new learning stick.  Spending the time for reflection with any of these strategies when new material is introduced will mean that students will need less time for reteaching later.

Friday, May 15, 2020

How to Bend and Draw Glass Tubing

Bending and drawing glass tubing is a handy skill for managing laboratory glassware. Here is how to do it. Note About Glass There are two main types of glass using in a lab: flint glass and borosilicate glass. Borosilicate glass may carry a label (e.g., Pyrex). Flint glass typically is not labeled. You can bend and draw flint glass using just about any flame. Borosilicate glass, on the other hand, requires higher heat in order to soften so that you can manipulate it. If you have flint glass, try to use an alcohol burner, since too high of heat may cause your glass to melt too quickly to work it. If you have borosilicate glass, youll need a gas flame in order to work the glass. The glass wont bend or else will be very hard to bend in an alcohol flame. Bending Glass Tubing Hold the tubing horizontally in the hottest part of the flame. This is the blue part of a gas flame or just above the top of the inner cone of an alcohol flame. Your goal is to heat the section of glass you want to bend, plus about a centimeter on either side of this point. A flame spreader is helpful for a gas flame, but not absolutely necessary.Rotate the tubing to make certain it is heated evenly.​​As you heat and rotate the tubing, apply gentle and continuous pressure where you want it bent. Once you feel the glass start to yield, release the pressure.Heat the tubing a few seconds longer. It starts to bend under its own weight, you have overheated it!Remove the tubing from the heat and allow it to cool a couple of seconds.In a single motion, bend the slightly cooled glass to the desired angle. Hold it in that position until it hardens.Set the glass on a heat-resistant surface to allow it to completely cool. Do not set it on a cold, un-insulated surface, such as a st one lab bench, since this likely will cause it to crack or break! An oven mitt or hot pad works great. Drawing Glass Tubing Heat the tubing as if you were going to bend it. Place the section of glass to be drawn in the hottest part of the flame and rotate the glass to heat it evenly.Once the glass becomes pliable, remove it from heat and pull the two ends straight away from each other until the tubing reaches the desired thickness. One trick to avoid getting a bow or curve in the glass is to let gravity help you out. Hold the glass tubing vertical to draw it, either pulling up on it or else letting gravity pull it down for you.Allow the tubing to cool, then cut it and fire polish the sharp edges. Among other uses, this is a handy technique for making your own pipettes, especially if you find the ones you have on hand are either too big or too small to deliver the desired volume. Troubleshooting Here are some causes and fixes for common problems: Glass Wont Get Soft - This happens if the flame temperature is too low to heat the glass. The solution is to use a hotter fuel, such as gas.Glass Gets Too Soft, Too Fast - This is caused by using too high of heat. Back off on the length of time you put the glass in the heat, hold it further from the hottest part of the flame, or use a fuel source that burns with a cooler flame.Glass Has Bumps or Crimps - This can happen by bending the glass more than once or by letting it get too soft so that its weight starts to pull it down. The solution to this problem is experience and practice since there is a certain amount of art to knowing when to remove the glass from the flame to bend it or pull it. Just know that once you decide to bend/pull, its a one-time deal. If it doesnt work, its unlikely you can reheat the glass and get a better outcome.Glass Tubing Seals - If the inside of the tube seals, its because the glass got too hot. If you are bending the glass, remove it from the heat soone r. If you are pulling glass, let it cool a bit more before drawing it. Note that you may wish to purposely seal the glass. If you do, just heat the tubing in the flame, rotating it, until it seals shut.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Is561 Week 2 Solution Essay - 1181 Words

Key IS561 – Week 2 iLab STEP 1: Working with Dictionary-Managed and Oracle-Managed Files (10 points) Scenario: As the DBA for your company, you have decided to install a new version of the Oracle Enterprise database to replace the current database version being used. The old database has become a constant headache and seems to be causing an overload on the disk drives I/O channels. Further analysis has also shown that two primary large tables are the main points of access. These tables are CUST_REC and ACCT_RECV tables. You also have a new server with three large-capacity disk drives: F, G, and H. Briefly, provide the following information. * Describe how you plan to rectify the I/O problem with the new Oracle10g†¦show more content†¦3. Parameters cannot have spaces in their name. All multi-word parameter names should contain underscores - 5 modifications ( db_block_size, db_domain, remote_login_passwordfile, db_name, instance_name ). 4. Altered the size of the db_block_size to be the standard 8K. 4K may be valid but the database would run more efficiently using 8K block s, which is the typical block size. 5. Added second control file to control_files entry. There should be a mimimum of two files. Ideally these files should be multiplexed over physically separated disk volumes to insure database recovery should a catastrophic event occur. 6. The parameter assignment â€Å"maxinstances = 2† was removed. The â€Å"maxinstances† parameter is valid in the CREATE DATABASE command but it doesn’t seem to be stored in the init.ora file. 7. The format of the Oracle version [number] in the compatible statement was adjusted. The number should consist of the 5 numerical components of a valid version of Oracle. I set this to 9.0.1.0.0 but ideally this should be set to the most recent version of Oracle thats installed, e.g. 10.2.0.1.0 if Oracle 10g is the latest installed version. 8. The db_name was minimized to just the database name. The full path, as listed, is really the db_unique_name which is used for making a globally unique nam e to a network of distributed database servers. 9. Quotation marks removed from db_domain value. (I don’t believe

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

EARTHQUAKE Essay Example For Students

EARTHQUAKE Essay Eartquake has lived many country. Many peoplehave died this eatquake. The most important example, 17August in 1999 Turkey earthquake. The most effective ?stanbul,Avc?lar and Yalova in Turkey. What does improve thiseathquake before and after?What is the event about earthquake now?TURKEY AND EARTHQUAKEAfter earthquake 17 August was noth?ng old the same stilpeople have continued bitter.We have to live withearthquake.The l?fe and propecty lost to become 17 August and12 September ?n earthquake.It was Earthquake has been to knowevent a naturel people arent interested, ignorant reason changein fact a disaster. Other civilized countries take precautions. They haveknown very good a fact. They know healtier, than other people. Therefore A buildings very good are built by they along years. Turkey hasnt improvied. Eartquakes reason peopels make toearn more much for inadequate and not lasting buildings. Wecontrol to live our circumference new buildings. We readinessnew an earthquake. People Havent Turned Back Old Way Of Life After Many People Have BeenDisaster ?n The LifeTurkey lived disaster centurys in 17 August 1999. Earthquake pulled down night at 03.02 45 second 7.4 violencein Marmara. Later from earthquake;STRONG BU?LD?NGSStrong buildings first argue life world bank and ministryof public works was made buildings different between in reason. World Banks buildings small cause eartguake victim, reaction. Some company stopped construction because ; There waseconomic attack in Turkey. Peoplebuildings take delivery to be faced any withdeficient. PEOPLE HELP POSITIONThe unemployment increase, the company closed inTurkey. People begin to live unsuitable buildings.Turkishengineers collected inside and outside help 10 milliard dollars,but Yalova was given 1,5 milliard dollars by government. NOTH?NG ?SNT CHANGEEarthquake victim work percent 42.3 in 100 milliondoolars in marmara. Other result in research; The familys have at home measure percent 47 The familys tenant measure percent 42.2 The familys lodging measure percent 7.7 The familys apatman measure percent 61.7 The familys hause measure percent 29.7The investmen share got less budgets government. Healty,education, social, security etc. Restricted to do this departmentfor government. Earthquake people lived big problem. Thisproblem didnt give in buildings people. However self-criticism make Augusts anniversary thisgeography should make suitable building. We are honestopposite yourself, Therefore we become to protect our future.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Describe the teachings about abortion and the sanctity of life, which are found in the Bible Essay Example

Describe the teachings about abortion and the sanctity of life, which are found in the Bible Essay An abortion is a premature expulsion of the foetus from the womb. It may be natural (miscarriage) or induced. Abortion causes many problems for Christians. It raises a number of issues and poses many questions: When exactly does life begin? Is one life more important then the other? Who should decide? We will write a custom essay sample on Describe the teachings about abortion and the sanctity of life, which are found in the Bible specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Describe the teachings about abortion and the sanctity of life, which are found in the Bible specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Describe the teachings about abortion and the sanctity of life, which are found in the Bible specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Abortion is highly emotive because it is literally a life or death decision. I dont have a very strong opinion on this topic because there are a lot of factors to be considered and it should not be a decision taken lightly. I think it is wrong to make a mother keep her baby if it is going to be severally handicapped or if the mother has been raped. I think that if the mother went along with the birth of a baby which was clearly a mistake, because she was raped, then that baby would be a constant reminder in her life of the disturbing event. I dont think the mother should be able to have an abortion whenever she wants for any reason, because the foetus shouldnt have to suffer because the parents made a mistake. I would therefore put myself under the same set of believes as a person from the Protestant Church. Different churches have different points of views on this topic. The Anglican Church believes that the life of the foetus must be protected but if the foetus endangers the life of the mother, action can be taken. The Protestant church believes that abortion is allowable in 3 circumstances: * The life of the mother is in danger, * The baby will be born with a severe handicap, * Other children will suffer badly if a new baby arrives. The Catholic Church is totally against abortion in any circumstances. The majority of Catholics believe that it is Gods will that they exist and that God intends for all babies to be born. Therefore if God is responsible for all human life than only God should have the right to take a life away. They look to the Bible to support this view although the word abortion never appears. Most of the passages Catholics quote in support of their beliefs describe God as the Creator. In Genesis 1.v26-27 (Old Testament) it is written God created man in his own image. This has been interpreted to mean that to give and take a life is Gods right alone. Also in Genesis 2.v7 (Old Testament) the verse the Lord God breathed into his nostrils the breathe of life and the man became a human being has been taken by some Christians to mean the same thing, that only God can give and take life under natural circumstances. When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. He created them male and female and blessed them. This quote comes from Genesis 5v1+2 and Christians believe it has the same meaning as the other two quotes from Genesis. The following passages could be classed as Basic Commands, which Christians should be able to follow without having any problems or troubles. In Exodus 20v13 (Old Testament) You shall not kill is used support the view that to take an unborn life is to kill. In I Corinthians 3v16+17 Dont you know that you yourselves are Gods temple and that Gods spirit lives in you? If anyone destroys Gods temple God will destroy him, for Gods temple is sacred and you are that temple. This has been taken by Christians to mean that you must respect your body because it is God. Both these quotes are used by people who are against abortion. There are a lot of passages in the Bible, which are saying that there is life before birth. Naked I came from my mothers womb and naked I shall depart Christians have taken this to mean that there is life before birth, and therefore is against abortion. You created my inmost being; you knit me together in my mothers womb this quote is implying that there is a bond between mother and unborn child and unborn child is a life. There is one passage in the Bible, in Luke 12 v 6, which stands alone. Are not 5 sparrows sold for 2 pennies? Yet not one of them is forgotten by God. It is argued to be against abortion and many Christians take it to mean all individuals count even the smallest, even the handicapped. In Matthew 18 v 12-13 If a man have an hundred sheep, and one of them be gone astray, he would leave the ninety nine and go into the mountains and look for it, when he finds the astray sheep he will rejoice more over that sheep than the other ninety nine which didnt go astray. Christians take this to mean that every single person has a place in this earth and nobody will be forgotten. In Jeremiah 1 v 4-5 it is quoted before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations. This quote has been taken by Christians to mean that before the baby was formed in the body, God already knew it and before the baby came out of the womb, it had already been blessed and God made sure it was a prophet to the nations. Therefore this quote is against abortion because it is implying that the baby has already been blessed by God and is already a person. When people are considering this topic, they may refer to the Bible as a source of reassurance to their beliefs because it has teaching from God. But there are sections which can be take to support abortion too. All Christians look at the Bible for reassurance, different denominations look at different parts depending on their beliefs and interpret quotes in different ways. Christians believe that the following quotes are for abortion. In Exodus 21v22 (Old Testament) it is written If men who are fighting hit a pregnant women and she gives birth prematurely but there is no serious injury, the offender must be fined whatever the womens quote husband demands and the court allows. Christians believe this quote suggests that only because a fine is commanded the foetus is not as important as mothers life but still seen as valuable. Another quote from the bible, which is for abortion, is When Elizabeth heard Marys greeting, the baby leaped in her womb this quote has been interpreted by Christians to believe the unborn child is alive. In Matthew 9v36 comes the quote When he saw the crowds, he had compassion on them, because they were harassed and helpless like sheep without a shepherd teaches Christians to show compassion towards mother and her decision. Most Catholics disagree with abortion in any circumstance. So all of the following quotes, which came from the Catholic Church, are against abortion. Cardinal Basil Hume said As a human being, there is surely a deep revulsion in most of us the destruction of any human life in any form, including the womb Catholics have taken this to mean that abortion is a destruction of a human life. In 1930 Pope Pirus XII stated that a Foetus has the same rights as its mother which Catholics have taken it to mean that neither the mother nor foetus is more important than the other and that should not be an argument for an abortion. The Catholic Truth Society claimed We have been created by Almighty God in his own image and likeness. No pregnancy is unplanned, because no baby can be conceived unless Almighty God intends that conception Catholics have taken this to mean God plans every conception. The Declaration on Procured Abortion stated From the time the ovum is fertilized a new life is begun which is neither that of the mother nor father and has been interpreted by Catholics to mean a child is a life from fertilization. Also in 1974, The Declaration on Procured Abortion stated every man and women with feeling, and certainly every Christian, must be ready to do what he can to remedy them which Catholics have taken to mean Womens rights are OK but not when it denies another person the right to live. Life must be protected with the utmost care from the moment of conception was stated by Humanae Vitae in 1968 and Catholics have taken to mean life begins at conception. The Church Of England looks at abortion from a different perspective and believes that it is acceptable to have an abortion under some circumstances. The following quotes from the Church Of England could be seen to support abortion at certain times. The Church Of England Report in 1984 stated the life of the foetus is not absolutely sacrosanct if it endangers the life of its mother. The Church Of England has interpreted this to mean the life of the foetus is important but not as important as the mothers because if the mothers life was lost it would affect more people than if the foetus life was lost. Abortion is generally undesirable but that it may be acceptable in some circumstances was stated by Christians For Free Choice and although the quote doesnt state the circumstances in which it is acceptable, it clarifies that each situation has to be looked at and treated individually. The following quote states the 3 circumstances in which The Church Of England thinks abortion is acceptable. While abortion should not be accepted certainly not as a method of birth control it may be permitted in certain cases: 1. If there is a serious risk to the mothers life 2. If conception takes place as a result of rape 3. If there is a grave risk that the baby will be born handicapped The Church Of England has taken this to mean that there are 3 cases when abortion is acceptable and to withhold compassion is evil but abortion should not be used as a method of contraception. The main comparison between the different churches beliefs is that the Catholic Church think abortion is wrong in any circumstances and The Church Of England has 3 circumstances in which they think abortion is acceptable but otherwise they agree with each other, accepting that it really is an undesirable response to a difficult situation.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

What are the Principles of human behaviour The WritePass Journal

What are the Principles of human behaviour Task 1 What are the Principles of human behaviour Task 1Principles of human behaviour:Leadership and human behaviour preferences:Preferred learning styles:Principles of Human communications:Task 2Resource management:Task 3Task 4:Task 5:Bibliography:Related Task 1 Principles of human behaviour: Human behaviour can be identified as the result of attempts to satisfy certain needs. These needs can be simple and easy to understand such as the need of food, water and shelter. However it can also be complex such as the need of respect or acceptance. Leadership and human behaviour work hand in hand. To   be   a   successful   leader,   you   must   understand   your people and work with   them   to   resolve   their   problems. In Nairobi the school of tomorrow the basic needs of any student is a good environment, shelter and the basic needs such as water and food. As the human behaviour changes according to the environment Nairobi school of tomorrow has to make sure that the environment in each class and in the school is positive. By examining human behavior, we can expand the knowledge we need to better understand people. Human behaviour study helps us understand why people act and react in certain ways. (tpub.com) Leadership and human behaviour preferences: As a leader in order to accomplish your goals, you need to interact with your followers, peers, seniors, and others; whose support your needs to accomplish the goals. To gain their support, you must be able to understand and motivate them. Human nature is the common qualities of all human beings. People behave according to certain principles of human nature. Values,  beliefs, and customs differ from country to country and even within group to group, but in general, all people have a few basic needs. As a leader you must understand these needs because they can be powerful motivators. (Milliken Elizabeth. M, Honeycutt A (2004) Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Basic Needs: are physiological, such as food, water, and sleep; and psychological, such as affection, security, and self-esteem. Metaneeds:  These include justice, goodness, beauty, order, unity, etc. Basic needs normally take priority over these Meta needs. A need higher in the hierarchy will become a motive of behaviour as long as the needs below it have been satisfied. Unsatisfied lower needs will dominate unsatisfied higher needs and must be satisfied before the person can climb up the hierarchy. So in order to be successful leaders in Nairobi school of tomorrow leaders have to fulfil the basic needs which are physiological needs, safety and belonging. Once these needs are met the behaviour of students will change in the school and the classes which will produce more positive results. They will meet their own goals and targets and the students would also feel part of the school. Preferred learning styles: Learning is defines as a relatively permanent change in an attitude or behaviour that occurs as a result of repeated experience. (Kimble and Grambzy, 1963) Institutes of education always seek to improve their educational initiatives more effective. Nairobi school of tomorrow are working hard to provide more effective and efficient services. Teaching serves as an important tool for achieving institutional goals and objectives, therefore to make the learning more effective teachers have to understand their students. Some students are left brained and some are right brained so the teacher has to use the technique which would be easy to understand for different kind of students. (Sims. R Ronald, Sims. J Serbrenia (1995)) Team roles (belbin theory): According to belbin theory of team roles a good team must have a leader who can be; Coordinator: The co-ordinator is a person-oriented leader. This leader trusts the team, accepting, dominant and is dedicated to team goals and objectives. The co-ordinator is a positive thinker who supports goal accomplishment, struggle and effort. Shaper: shaper is a task-focused leader who thrives in nervous energy and who has a high motivation to accomplish goals and for whom winning is the name of the game. Plant: The plant is a specialist idea maker characterised by high IQ and quietness while also being leading and original. The plant tends to take fundamental approaches to team performance and problems Resource investigator: The resource investigator is someone who searches opportunities and extends contacts. Resource investigators are good mediators who explore others for information and support and pick up other’s ideas and develop them. Company/worker implementer: Implementers are responsive of exterior responsibilities and are well-organized, careful and have a good self-image. They have a tendency to be tough-minded and practical, trusting and liberal, respecting established traditions. This kind of leaders doesn’t get anxious and tend to work for the team in a practical. Monitor evaluator:   is a sensible, careful and intelligent person with a low need to achieve. Monitor evaluators add particularly at times of vital decision making because they are skilled to evaluate competing proposals. Team worker: Team workers make helpful interference to prevent potential resistance and enable the difficult characters of the team to use their skills to positive ends. They have a propensity to keep team spirit up and allow other members to add effectively to the team. Specialist: The specialist supplies knowledge and mechanical skills which are not common within the team. They are often highly reserved and concerned and tend to be self-starting, devoted and committed. Completer/Finisher:   the completer or the finishers’ strength lies in perfectionism, attention to the details of the task and meeting the deadlines.(West, M 1994) Principles of Human communications: Communication is basic human interaction. It is a process and it is dynamic, ongoing and ever changing. It may not have a beginning or an end. Communication can be divided into two categories. Interpersonal communication is between people and intrapersonal communication is your own self dialog.   Communication is very important for Nairobi school of tomorrow because the feedback from the client is just as important as whatever the facilitator says or does. What the client says and what the client is showing by the way they look and act will give Nairobi school of tomorrow an idea of the results they get from the services they provide. The way the school communicated with its contractors would affect the overall performance of the company. What message do they give to their clients and how they respond to the feedback given? What method do they use to communicate with their clients and contractors? For example presentation, demonstration,   Ã‚  discussion or tutorial to get the message across. Language plays an important role in the way we perceive the world and it also effects the way people behave around each other. It does not jus label and distinguish the environment for us but also structures and guides out thinking patterns. It influences our relationship with others and with the environment. To ensure that the communication flow is not disturbed between administration and clients or administration and contractors the school has decided that simple language would be used throughout the whole project so everyone can understand. Use of jargons would be avoided. Task 2 Resource management: Effective resource management is mostly about foreseeing problems and working on solutions to make the resources of the organization more effective.   Resources can be regarded as consumable and non consumable. Consumable resources is as it goes into task such as money, concert, engine days and paint all are considered to be consumable resources. Non consumable resources can be used over and over again. Once you are done working on a task you can carry on working on something else. An Effective resource management includes Resource allocation: The first key to effective resource allocation for a school is in understanding the system of incentives that guides in spending of schools and colleges. The incentives are based partly on intrinsic value and partly on instrumental ones. For e.g. programs with strong market demand (for examples from students, research sponsors) however low intrinsic value serves instrumentally cross subsidize programs with high intrinsic value but low financial potential. A good resource allocation would allow Nairobi school of tomorrow to achieve a proper balance between its intrinsic values and those of the market place. Nairobi school of tomorrow has chosen outsourcing in resource management as their important part of resource allocation. Outsourcing is contracting with another company or person to do a particular function.   In this case Nairobi school of tomorrow has picked another company to provide the school with lunch. (Massy F. William (2004) Time management: Time management can be defined as the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling and budgeting ones time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity. To manage their time effectively Nairobi school of tomorrow administration must fulfil some requirements which are; The administration needs to have clear objectives. If the administration does not know what they are trying to achieve then they will fail in resource allocation. The administration needs to have careful forward planning. If the wrong step it would lead them to failure. Administration needs to have the ability to delegate successfully and the work should be flexible. To manage the time effectively the administration has come up with a strategy. First of all Nairobi school of tomorrow has to identify the things which needs prioritisation such as the quality of teaching, classrooms, lunch and other facilities for e.g. school library. After identifying the priorities they will break down each task in to subtasks because it will put work into more logical sequence. It would also determine the skills needed and it would allow communication of work to be done. It would ensure that all work sequences are identified and understood. After task breakdown the next step would be scheduling.[1] Scheduling is the process by which Nairobi school of tomorrow can look at the time available to them and plan on how to use it to achieve the goals of the administration which were identified in the early stage. A good scheduling technique designed by Nairobi school of tomorrow is to assemble the project schedule by listing all the tasks that need to be completed in order. Assign length to each task and then distribute the required resources, after the distribution the administration would Verify predecessors i.e. what tasks must be completed before and the tasks that cant start until after.( F. John Reh. (2011). Project Management 101 Part 2: Managing Resources People, Equipment, and Material) Six Sigma:   is a business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, USA in 1986. It is still widely used in many parts of the industry, even though its use is not without disagreement. Six Sigma looks for improvement in the quality of process production. It improves the production by identifying and removing the causes of deficiency and minimizing unpredictability in manufacturing and business processes. Six sigma uses a set of quality management methods which includes statistical methods, and creates a particular communications of people within the organization. (Tennant, Geoff (2001) Task 3 In project management there are two types or resources. First resources are skill types and the second type is the worker time units. Here we are dealing with the effort that a skill type can put into the task over a giver period of time.   There are a few stages involved in resource management. The stages are as follows; Resource definition i.e. deciding what resources you are going to deal with Resource allocation i.e. believing that the particular task will need so many traders people and as much material to get finished. Resource aggregation i.e. simply the outline of the resources required to complete all activities based on the resource allocation carried out in the previous stage. Resource smoothing is the process that resolves a resource requirement that is smooth and where peaks and low points are eliminated. After the resources are managed properly Nairobi school of tomorrow has to make sure that they manage there subcontractors.   Subcontracts are individuals or businesses that sign contracts to perform some parts of the business. In this case Nairobi school of tomorrow has a subcontractor Vertex who would provide them with school dinner.   To manage the subcontracts effectively the administration has to regularly conference calls, regular progress reports and on site meetings at the subcontractor’s facility. This would keep the administration satisfied with the quality. It is very essential to have regular on site meetings because conference calls or progress reports may not always reveal the true programs. To ensure the management with subcontractors is good administration has to ensure that there is method for feedback on client performance. Feedback must be taken from supplier perspective as the client’s perspective on the supplier’s performance. Once a supp lier is chose and a public announcement is made the administration should work with suppliers to develop supply chain. Effective contract management is vital in ensuring the structure established in the procurement process for good supply chain management is applied over the duration of the contract. Task 4: Coaching: Coaching usually consists of One to one development discussions Coaching helps people realise both there strengths and weaknesses by giving feedback Coaching is aimed at the specific issues or areas that need to be improved. It is relatively short term activity It focuses on improving performance and developing/enhancing individuals skills. Generally more structured in nature and meetings are scheduled on a regular basis Mentoring: in progress relationship that can last for a long period of time Can be more informal and meetings can take place as and when the person being mentored needs some advice, direction or support Mentor is usually more skilled and qualified than the ‘mentee’. It is usually carried out by a more senior person in the organisation who can pass on knowledge, experience and open doors to opportunities Focus is on career and personal development Mentoring resolves more around developing the mentee professional (Brefigroup. (2011). Coaching and mentoring) Task 5: Materials management is a part of logistics and it refers to the location and movement of the physical items or products of the company. There are three main processes which are connected with materials management spare parts quality control   inventory management Materials management is important in big manufacturing and distribution environments where there are multiple parts, locations, and significant money invested in these items. The first expansion in materials management is related to spare parts. Spare parts are essential to the progressing operation of manufacture lines and related equipment. Poor management of spare parts can cause downtime and loss of production. Quality control is a huge part of materials management. The formation of material standards, examinations, and returns process is a most important responsibility of the materials management group. All parts and materials must be tested to make sure that a precise level of quality is met. This is usually completed before a purchase order is issued to the supplier, to make sure that the supplier has met the conditions of their contract. Inventory management is the correct tracking of all materials in the company’s list. The company has purchased these items from another supplier. There are three possible areas of loss that are concentrated on through useful inventory management: reduction, misplacement, and short shipments. In material management one of the common ways that is used is the ABC analysis. It is a method of categorizing items, actions, or activities according to their virtual importance. It is often used in inventory management where it is used to categorize stock items into groups based on the total annual spending of each item. Organisations can focus more detailed attention on the high value items. Bibliography: Unknown. (2011). 1-5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR. Available: tpub.com/content/advancement/12024/css/12024_14.htm. Last accessed 23-06-2011. West M. (1994). Effective Teamwork; the British Psychology Society. Available: srds.co.uk/cedtraining/handouts/hand40.htm. Last accessed 25-06-2011. Sims. R Ronald, Sims. J Serbrenia (1995). The importance of learning styles. USA: Greenwood press. Page 25. Brefigroup. (2011). Coaching and mentoring – whats the difference?. Available: brefigroup.co.uk/coaching/coaching_and_mentoring.html. Last accessed 26-06-2011. F. John Reh. (2011). Project Management 101 Part 2: Managing Resources People, Equipment, and Material. Available: http://management.about.com/cs/projectmanagement/a/PM101b.htm. Last accessed 21-06-2011. Tennant, Geoff (2001). SIX SIGMA: SPC and TQM in Manufacturing and Services. Gower Publishing, page 5. Massy F. William (2004). Resource Allocation in Higher Education. USA: University of Michigan. Page 4-15. F. John Reh. (2011). Project Management 101 Part 3: Managing Time and Schedule. Available: http://management.about.com/cs/projectmanagement/a/PM101c.htm. Last accessed 21-06-2011. Milliken Elizabeth. M, Honeycutt A (2004). Understanding human behaviour A guide for health care providers.. 7th ed. USA: Thomson Learning Inc. page 73-74.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

The Efficient Pollution Control Regulatory System Essay

The Efficient Pollution Control Regulatory System - Essay Example increase in price of bread as delineated in the diagram above by an increase in price of bread from P0 to P1 , this result to a new equilibrium in the market E1. (ii) Complementary goods are that usually consumed together (jointly consumed goods). In the case of Complementary goods when the demand r the price of the other good is decreased. Bread and butter are complementary goods, therefore they exhibit a cross elasticity of demand so when the price for margarine and butter is increased it result to a decrease in demand of bread causing a inward shift of the demand curve thus the quantity of bread demanded falls. PRICE D1 D0 S P2 P1 D0 D1 0 Q1 Q0 QUANTITY BREAD From the above diagram an increase in price of butter and margarine will cause shift the demand curve of bread from D0 D0 to D1 D1. This results in a decline in the amount of bread demand illustrated by a shift by the demand curve. ii) In the case of increase in the price of potatoes, rice and pasta, these could are not relat ed in any way. Therefore, they would not result in influencing an increase in the quantity of bread demand or supplied since these goods are not related in way. This can be illustrated by the diagram below. Price D0 S0 P0 S0 D0 Q0 Quantity From the above diagram, an increase in price of rice, potatoes and pasta does not in way affect the quantity of bread demand or supplied. Q2. A) A graph illustrating shortages causes by price controls. price DB DA S $4 $3 DB S DA 0 QS Q* QA QB Quantity In the above diagram when the price of a kilo of banana is $4 the quantity demanded is Q, that is where the demand is equal to the quantity supplied. When the price is fixed at $3 per kilo of banana the quantity supplied is Qs, while the quantity demanded is QA and QB for both cities A and B respectively.... When individuals fall they have to seek medical attention thus incurring huge medical bills. Therefore, pollution of storm water negative contributes to the society. The company polluting the stormwater on the other hand enjoys returns emanating from their production activities without considering the cost that they pass on to the society when pollute the environment t(Haley, 121) In addition to this pollution of storm water, depletes the amount of water available for human consumption therefore individuals have to search for other alternative sources of water which are not expensive but water becomes scarce. This represents an additional cost to the society occasioned by the production activities of the firm (Haley, 131) Therefore in order to minimize the amount of pollution of our environment the government needs to intervene so as to reduce amount emission that the firm releases to river as well as other air. The best method to caution the society from the externalities is by charging the polluting firms a standard fee that would go towards financing the affected individuals in circumstances like subsidizing their medical or treatment of the polluted water. Introduction of laws that would require firms which pollute the environment to pay. This would be essential, since firms are supposed to be in the frontline of preserving the environment, therefore, they have to pay when pollute the environment. Apart from this, the polluting company should compensate the society for the cost incurred from their production activities.